Recent Articles

Antepartum haemorrhage (Question-Answers)

Placenta praevia Premature separation of abnormally placed placenta in part or whole ( rarely ) causes unavoidable haemorrhage.It is always revealed.Placenta is… What is antepartum haemorrhage ? Bleeding from genital tract during pregnancy after 28th week is called antepartum haemorrahge. What are the types of antepartum haemorrhage ? They are of two types— Accidental & […]

Anatomy of the female pelvis (Question-Answers )

Where is mid cavity ? It is between the inlet above and outlet below. Which part of the pelvis has no role in labour ? False pelvis. What are the three parts of female pelvis ? The brim or inlet , mid cavity and the outlet. Tell me what are the boundaries of the brim […]

Antenatal care(Question-Answers)

What are the symptoms of pregnancy ? Amenorrhoea , morning sickness, breast discomfort and frequency of micturition. How will you confirm it ? By doing card test ( urine pregnancy test ) and by seeing the cardiac activity and gestational sac on ultrasound at 6 weeks of gestation. What is Hegar’s sign ? In early […]

Bergeyella causing preterm births

Transmission of infection from oral cavity Recent studies have shown that Bergeyella , a rod shaped , gram negative pathogen found in the oral cavity of a pregnant woman can cause preterm births. Contents Bergeyella zoohelcumis an uncommon zoonotic pathogen typically associated with cat or dog bites previously known as weeksella zooheculum have been… Research […]

Malpresentations (Q-A)

What are the causes of malpresentations ? Contracted pelvis Uterine fibroids Placenta praevia Multiple pregnancy Hydramnios Extereme uterine obliquity including lax abdominal wall. Face presentation What is the frequency of face presentation ? 1 in 200 labours What are the commonest causes of face presentation ? An increase in the tone of extensor muscles of […]

The puerperium (Question-Answers)

Contents Pyrexia in puerperium What is puerperium ? It is a period after child birth (6-8 weeks) during which the mother gradually returns to the non pregnant state. What is involution of uterus ? It is the process in which the postpartum uterus which is about 21b and 8-10 inches long, returns to it’s original […]

Normal labour (Question-Answers )

12 What is labour ? A process by which a viable foetus is expelled from the uterus. What is normal labour ? A labour in which foetus presents by vertex and is expelled from the uterus naturally , without artificial aids and without complications. What is the average duration of pregnancy in woman ? 40 […]

Gardasil (Merck) for Cervical Cancer and Genital Warts

Gardasil A quadrivalent HPV Vaccine

Gardasil has become the second best selling human vaccine with sales of over $ 1.61 billion in the year 2009. The approval and launch of the vaccine in 2006 by the FDA and EMEA resulted in strong demand due to the unmet medical need. With efficacy of over 95% in clinical trials and low prices for poor developing countries and patients, it is cost effective prevention of the HPV related cancer and genital warts. The price of the 3 dose vaccine is $300-500 in Western countries and has been offered at $ 6 in developing countries in partnership with GAVI and UNICEF. The FDA experts and its advisory panel on Vaccines have endorsed the use of Gardasil for prevention of anal cancer in adults. FDA has approved Gardasil for prevention of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer in females 9-26 years of age and for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer in both females and males. The FDA rejected its use in older women 27-45 years of age due to lack of supporting data.

Influenza ( 2009 H1N1 ) & Pregnancy: Vaccination and Treatment

Swine Flu, Influenza A, H1N1 v, Pregnancy, High Risk, WHO, CDC, EMEA, FDA, Vaccination, 3rd Trimester, Antiviral,Tamiflu, Relenza, Breastfeeding

WHO, CDC, European experts have identified Pregnant Women as a high risk priority group for influenza A vaccination and antiviral treatment. Clinical studies and CDC data show a relatively high mortality in pregnant women due to 2009 H1N1 infection. Current recommendations call for starting the antiviral therapy in pregnant women as soon as possible and even before waiting for the confirmatory test for 2009 H1N1. CDC/WHO recommend continued breastfeeding during antiviral treatment.

सर्विकल कैंसर और जेनिटल वार्ट के लिए टीका -गर्डेसिल (मर्क)

Gardasil Hindi Knol, एक क्वाडरीवेलेंट टीका

२००९ में गेर्डसिल 1.6 अरब से भी ज्यादा मात्र में बिकने वाला टीका था |२००६ में इसे एफ डी ए (FDA) एवं ई एम् ई ए (EMEA) द्वारा मान्यता दी गयी एवं बाज़ार में उतारा गया | यह ९५ प्रतिशत कामगर साबित हुआ , खासकर विकासशील देशों में क्यूंकि इसकी कीमत कुछ अधिक नहीं थी | तीन खुराकों की कीमत विदेशों में ३०० से ५०० $ है और विकासशील देशों में मात्र ६ $ | यह कैंसर और वार्ट को रोकने में कामयाब टीका है | GAVI , UNICEF की वजह से यह कम लागत में विकासशील देशों में बेचा जाता है |